The mine action process in B%H began in 1996 immediately after the end of the war and signing of the Dayton Peace Agreement, when UNMAC was established with the support of the United Nations and with the aim of building a local structure for managing the demining process and building local operational capacities. The greatest credit for collecting available minefield records (18,600) and the establishment of a central database, without which no further planning and reporting would be possible, belongs to IFOR. Operational demining activities in the field were intensively implemented in this period through UN programs and the World Bank, with the involvement of a number of foreign non-governmental (NGOs) and commercial organizations.
It was in 1996, when UNMAC was established, that the largest number of victims was registered, almost 50 per month. In such a situation, mine action was justified as a condition for the return of refugees and displaced persons, the reconstruction and development of the country’s natural and economic capacities.
In July 1998, national structures took responsibility for the implementation of demining activities, but continued to receive financial, technical and technical assistance from the international community. Entity mine clearance centers RSMAC and FMAC and the Coordination Center (BHMAC) are being established. Demining is still largely done by foreign agencies, but local capacities are also being developed. The primary responsibility and authority lies with the Council of Ministers and entity governments, which through their bodies – the Commission for Demining and Entity Mine Action Centers – ensure the planning, coordination, recording and quality assurance of mine action operations.
With the passing of the Law on demining in 2002, the central structure of BHMAC at the state level was established at the Ministry of Civil Affairs. In the same year, the first Mine Action Strategy 2002 – 2009 was adopted, which significantly improved the functionality of the structure, but also ensured the quality, economy and efficiency of the entire process.
At the end of 2004, by evaluating the success of the program, it was concluded that the Vision from the First Strategy was too optimistic and unrealistic, and that the size and complexity of the problem greatly exceeded the available resources, technologies and support for the realization of the program.
By adopting the revised Mine Action Strategy 2005-2009. The real approach of Visia – a “land free from mines up to 2009” – was accepted. The concept of the Plan was based on the removal of mines from all areas of priority category I and the permanent marking of locations of II and III category.
The revised strategy will, based on the results of systematic scouting and mine impact research (LIS), streamline activities more efficiently and allow better use of limited financial resources.
Larger efforts are also invested in mine risk education and assistance to mine victims. According to statistics, the rate of mine accidents fell on average to less than three cases per month in the period 2003-2006.
There is a significant increase in the participation of local authorities in financing demining, while at the same time gradually decreasing donor funds.
The international community is initiating a gradual transition of funding to local authorities and resources. This is a process that is in progress, although funding of anti-mine action largely depends on the support of traditional friendly governments of donor countries and NGOs that support and conduct anti-mine action in BiH.
Previous experiences indicate a major disproportion between real needs for mine action in BiH and country opportunities. This Strategy is an opportunity for Bosnia and Herzegovina to overcome the mine threat with an active initiative and appropriate solutions contained in the Strategy 2009-2019. and with the support of local authorities and key partners from the governmental and NGO sector of donor countries, as well as professional international institutions and organizations.
Following the obligations arising from the signing of the Convention on the Prohibition of Production, Use, Stockpiling and Transfer of PP Mines, according to which, among other things, the obligation to clear all mined areas was completed by March 2009 at the latest, the Council of Ministers held its 134th session, held on 28.11.2006. concluded that the process of evaluation of the existing Mine Action Strategy 2005-2009 should be approached. as well as the preparation of the drafting of a new strategic document for the period 2009-2019. which will constitute a professional basis for submitting an application for the extension of the mine clearance deadline.
In line with the results of the then-implemented evaluation of the implementation of the current strategic and operational objectives, the operational, financial and resource plan, as well as the analysis of mine victim statistics and the general assessment of the problem of mines, it can be concluded that the general danger is significantly reduced, work and time in order to successfully complete the process. The first urgent phase of demining was done, despite all the circumstances and obstacles, especially
In line with the results of the then-implemented evaluation of the implementation of the current strategic and operational objectives, the operational, financial and resource plan, as well as the analysis of mine victim statistics and the general assessment of the problem of mines, it can be concluded that the general danger is significantly reduced, work and time in order to successfully complete the process. The first urgent phase of demining was done, despite all the circumstances and obstacles, especially evident in the lack of financial resources. A need was identified in the next cycle of 10 years (2009-2019) to plan mine action in accordance with the country’s priorities and needs, as well as the available knowledge and techniques, as contained in the proposal Strategic Plan for the period 2009-2019.